Until recently, there was limited scientific research on dietary supplements and so little was known about them. However, the prevalence of supplement use has increased dramatically over the past 20 years, and their benefits have become a matter of consumer interest. At the same time, the application of state-of-the art scientific methods to explore issues involving dietary supplements has advanced rapidly.

Do your own research. Look into ingredients and see for yourself.

AloeVera

  1. Marshall JM. Aloe vera gel: What is the evidence? Pharma Jr. 1990;24:360–2. []
  2. Davis RH. Aloe vera: A scientific approach. New York: Vantage Press; []
  3. Tyler V. The honest herbal: A sensible guide to the use of herbs and related remedies. 3rd ed. Binghamton, New York: Pharmaceutical Products Press; 1993. []
  4. Atherton P. Aloe vera revisited. Br J Phytother. 1998;4:76–83. []
  5. Shelton M. Aloe vera, its chemical and therapeutic properties. Int J Dermatol. 1991;30:679–83. [PubMed[]
  6. Atherton P. The essential Aloe vera: The actions and the evidence. 2nd ed 1997. []
  7. Ro JY, Lee B, Kim JY, Chung Y, Chung MH, Lee SK, et al. Inhibitory mechanism of aloe single component (Alprogen) on mediator release in guinea pig lung mast cells activated with specific antigen-antibody reactions. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000;292:114–21. [PubMed[]
  8. Hutter JA, Salmon M, Stavinoha WB, Satsangi N, Williams RF, Streeper RT, et al. Anti-inflammatory C-glucosyl chromone from Aloe barbadensis. J Nat Prod. 1996;59:541–3. [PubMed[]
  9. Chithra R Sajithlal GB, Chandrakasan G. Influence of aloe vera on collagen characteristics in healing dermal wounds in rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 1998;181:71–6. [PubMed[]
  10. Heggers J, Kucukcelebi A, Listengarten D, Stabenau J, Ko F, Broemeling LD, et al. Beneficial effect of aloe on wound healing in an excisional wound model. J Altern Complement Med. 1996;2:271–7. [PubMed[]
  11. Chithra P, Sajithlal G, Chandrakasan G. Influence of aloe vera on the glycosaminoglycans in the matrix of healing dermal wounds in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 1998;59:179–86. [PubMed[]
  12. Roberts DB, Travis EL. Acemannan-containing wound dressing gel reduces radiation-induced skin reactions in C3H mice. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1995;32:1047–52. [PubMed[]
  13. Sato Y, Ohta S, Shinoda M. Studies on chemical protectors against radiation XXXI: Protective effects of Aloe arborescens on skin injury induced by x-irradiation. Yakugaku Zasshi. 1990;110:876–84. [PubMed[]
  14. Byeon S, Pelley R, Ullrich SE, Waller TA, Bucana CD, Strickland FM. Aloe barbadensis extracts reduce the production of interleukin-10 after exposure to ultraviolet radiation. J Invest Dermtol. 1988;110:811–7. [PubMed[]
  15. Peng SY, Norman J, Curtin G, Corrier D, McDaniel HR, Busbee D. Decreased mortality of Norman murine sarcoma in mice treated with the immunomodulator, acemannon. Mol Biother. 1991;3:79–87. [PubMed[]
  16. Hart LA, Nibbering PH, van den Barselaar MT, van Dijk H, van den Burg AJ, Labadie RP. Effects of low molecular constituents from aloe vera gel on oxidative metabolism and cytotoxic and bactericidal activities of human neutrophils. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1990;12:427–34. [PubMed[]
  17. Ishii Y, Tanizawa H, Takino Y. Studies of aloe. V: Mechanism of cathartic effect. Biol Pharm Bull. 1994;17:651–3. [PubMed[]
  18. Sydiskis RJ, Owen DG, Lohr JL, Rosler KH, Blomster RN. Inactivation of enveloped viruses by anthraquinones extracted from plants. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1991;35:2463–6. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]
  19. Kim HS, Lee BM. Inhibition of benzo [a] pyrene-DNA adduct formation by aloe barbadensis Miller. Carcinogenesis. 1997;18:771–6. [PubMed[]
  20. Kim HS, Kacew S, Lee BM. In vitro chemopreventive effects of plant polysaccharides (Aloe barbadensis Miller, Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum, and Coriolus vesicolor) Carcinogenesis. 1999;20:1637–40. [PubMed[]
  21. West DP, Zhu YF. Evaluation of aloe vera gel gloves in the treatment of dry skin associated with occupational exposure. Am J Infect Control. 2003;31:40–2. [PubMed[]
  22. Zawahry ME, Hegazy MR, Helal M. Use of aloe in treating leg ulcers and dermatoses. Int J Dermatol. 1973;12:68–73. [PubMed[]
  23. Ernst E, Fugh-Berman A. Methodological considerations in testing the efficacy of complementary/alternative treatments (CATs) Int J Alt Comp Med. 1998;16:8–10. []
  24. Vardy AD, Cohen AD, Tchetov T. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Aloe vera (A. barbadensis) emulsion in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. J Derm Treatment. 1999;10:7–11. []
  25. Paulsen E, Korsholm L, Brandrup F. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of a commercial Aloe vera gel in the treatment of slight to moderate psoriasis vulgaris. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2005;19:326–31. [PubMed[]
  26. Syed TA, Ahmad SA, Holt AH, Ahmad SH, Afzal M. Management of psoriasis with Aloe vera extract in a hydrophilic cream: A placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Trop Med Int Health. 1996;1:505–9. [PubMed[]
  27. Syed TA, Afzal M, Ashfaq AS. Management of genital herpes in men with 0.5% Aloe vera extract in a hydrophilic cream A placebo-controlled double-blind study. J Derm Treatment. 1997;8:99–102. []
  28. Syed TA, Cheema KM, Ahmad SA, Ashfaq A. Aloe vera extract 0.5% in hydrophilic cream versus aloe vera gel for the measurement of genital herpes in males: A placebo-controlled, double-blind, comparative study. J Eur Acad Derm Venereol. 1996;7:294–5. []
  29. Visuthikosol V, Chowchuen B, Sukwanarat Y, Sriurairatana S, Boonpucknavig V. Effect of aloe vera gel to healing of burn wound a clinical and historic study. J Med Assoc Thai. 1995;78:403–9. [PubMed[]
  30. Yeh GY, Eisenberg DM, Kaptchuk TJ, Phillips RS. Systematic review of herbs and dietary supplements for glycemic control in diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2003;26:1277–94. [PubMed[]
  31. Montaner JS, Gill J, Singer J. Double-blind placebo-controlled pilot trial of acemannan in advanced human immunodeficiency virus disease. J Acquir Immune Defic Syn Hum Retrovirol. 1996;12:153–7. [PubMed[]
  32. Furukawa F, Nishikawa A, Chihara T, Shimpo K, Beppu H, Kuzuya H, et al. Chemopreventive effects of Aloe arborescens on N-nitrosobis (2-oxopropyl) amine-induced pancreatic carcinogenesis in hamsters.  Lett. 2002;178:117–22. [PubMed[]
  33. Fenig E, Nordenberg J, Beery E, Sulkes J, Wasserman L. Combined effect of aloe-emodin and chemotherapeutic agents on the proliferation of an adherent variant cell line of Merkel cell carcinoma. Oncol Rep. 2004;11:213–7. [PubMed[]
  34. Langmead L, Feakins M, Goldthorpe S, Holt H, Tsironi E, De Silva A, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral aloe vera gel for active ulcerative colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2004;19:739–47. [PubMed[]
  35. Fulton J. The stimulation of postdermabrasion wound healing with stabilized aloe vera gel-polyethylene oxide dressing. J Dermatol Surg Oncol. 1990;16:460–7. [PubMed[]
  36. Thomas DR, Goode PS, LaMaster K, Tennyson T. Acemannan hydrogel dressing for pressure ulcers: A randomized, controlled trial. Adv Wound Care. 1998;11:273–6. [PubMed[]
  37. Hunter D, Frumkin A. Adverse reactions to Vit E and aloe vera preparations after dermabrasion and chemical peel. Cutis. 1991;47:193–6. [PubMed[]
  38. Schmidt JM, Greenspoon JS. Aloe vera dermal wound gel is associated with a delay in wound healing. Obstet Gynecol. 1991;78:115–7. [PubMed[]
  39. Su K, Mehta V, Ravikumar L, Shah R, Pinto H, Halpern J, et al. Phase II double-blind randomized study comparing oral aloe vera versus placebo to prevent radiation-related mucositis in patients with head-and-neck neoplasms. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2004;60:71–7. [PubMed[]
  40. Bosley C, Smith J, Baratti P. A phase III trial comparing an anionic phospholipid-based (APP) cream and aloe vera-based gel in the prevention and treatment of radiation dermatitis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2003;57:S4–38. []
  41. Bassett IB, Pannowitz DL, Barnetson RS. A comparative study of tea-tree oil versus benzoylperoxide in the treatment of acne. Med J Aust. 1990;153:455–8. [PubMed[]
  42. Hayes SM. Lichen planus: A report of successful treatment with aloe. Gen Dent. 1999;47:268–72. [PubMed[]
  43. McCauley RL, Heggers JP, Robson MC. Frostbite: Methods to minimize tissue loss. Postgrad Med. 1990;88:67–8. 73–7. [PubMed[]
  44. Garnick JJ, Singh B, Winkley G. Effectiveness of a medicament containing silicon dioxide, aloe, and allantoin on aphthous stomatitis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 1998;86:550–6. [PubMed[]

Inflammation

  1. Peat, Ray. n.d. “Regeneration and Degeneration.” Accessed April 1, 2021. https://raypeat.com/articles/articles/regeneration-degeneration.shtml.
  2. Zamenhof, S., and G. Ahmad. 1979. “The Effects of Exogenous Nutrients on Growth of Chick Embryo Brain.” Growth 43 (3): 160–66.
  3. https://web.stanford.edu/group/stanfordbirds/text/essays/Precocial_and_Altricial.html
  4. Rinaldi, Joshua. 2006. “Last caw: Crow thought to be world’s oldest dies in Bearsville at age 59.” July 7, 2006. https://www.dailyfreeman.com/news/last-caw-crow-thought-to-be-world-s-oldest-dies/article_985aeacb-4ea2-5ea4-8cce-1e7037763e5b.html.
  5. “UCSB Science Line.” n.d. Accessed April 1, 2021. http://scienceline.ucsb.edu/getkey.php?key=6040.
  6. Wojdasiewicz, Piotr, Łukasz A. Poniatowski, and Dariusz Szukiewicz. 2014. “The Role of Inflammatory and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines in the Pathogenesis of Osteoarthritis.” Mediators of Inflammation 2014 (April): 561459.
  7. Wagner, W., and M. Wehrmann. 2007. “Differential Cytokine Activity and Morphology during Wound Healing in the Neonatal and Adult Rat Skin.” Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 11 (6): 1342–51.
  8. Morykwas, M. J., S. L. Perry, and L. C. Argenta. 1993. “Effects of Prostaglandins and Indomethacin on the Cellular Inflammatory Response Following Surgical Trauma in Fetal Rabbits.” International Journal of Tissue Reactions 15 (4): 151–56.
  9. Ricciotti, Emanuela, and Garret A. FitzGerald. 2011. “Prostaglandins and Inflammation.” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 31 (5): 986–1000.
  10. Dirix, Chantal E. H., Arnold D. Kester, and Gerard Hornstra. 2009. “Associations between Term Birth Dimensions and Prenatal Exposure to Essential and Trans Fatty Acids.” Early Human Development 85 (8): 525–30.
  11. Dirix, C. E. H., G. Hornstra, and J. G. Nijhuis. 2009. “Fetal Learning and Memory: Weak Associations with the Early Essential Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Status.” Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids 80 (4): 207–12.
  12. Sweeney, B., P. Puri, and D. J. Reen. 2001. “Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Influence Neonatal Monocyte Survival.” Pediatric Surgery International 17 (4): 254–58.
  13. Kent, George. 2014. “Regulating Fatty Acids in Infant Formula: Critical Assessment of U.S. Policies and Practices.” International Breastfeeding Journal 9 (1): 2.
  14. Peltekova, Vanya, Doreen Engelberts, Gail Otulakowski, Satoko Uematsu, Martin Post, and Brian P. Kavanagh. 2010. “Hypercapnic Acidosis in Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury.” Intensive Care Medicine 36 (5): 869–78.
  15. Peng, Yuanfei, Minhua Zheng, Qing Ye, Xuehua Chen, Beiqing Yu, and Bingya Liu. 2009. “Heated and Humidified CO2 Prevents Hypothermia, Peritoneal Injury, and Intra-Abdominal Adhesions during Prolonged Laparoscopic Insufflations.” The Journal of Surgical Research 151 (1): 40–47.
  16. Peng, Yuanfei, Minhua Zheng, Qing Ye, Xuehua Chen, Beiqing Yu, and Bingya Liu. 2009. “Heated and Humidified CO2 Prevents Hypothermia, Peritoneal Injury, and Intra-Abdominal Adhesions during Prolonged Laparoscopic Insufflations.” The Journal of Surgical Research 151 (1): 40–47.
  17. Morisaki, Hiroshi, Satoshi Yajima, Yoko Watanabe, Takeshi Suzuki, Michiko Yamamoto, Nobuyuki Katori, Saori Hashiguchi, and Junzo Takeda. 2009. “Hypercapnic Acidosis Minimizes Endotoxin-Induced Gut Mucosal Injury in Rabbits.” Intensive Care Medicine 35 (1): 129–35.
  18. Grow, Matthew, Anton W. Neff, Anthony L. Mescher, and Michael W. King. 2006. “Global Analysis of Gene Expression in Xenopus Hindlimbs during Stage-Dependent Complete and Incomplete Regeneration.” Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists 235 (10): 2667–85.
  19. Winkelmann, E. 1960. “[Experimental studies on the regeneration of the spinal cord of Amblystoma mexicanum after extirpation of a small section].” Zeitschrift fur mikroskopisch-anatomische Forschung 66: 147–76.
  20. Shieh, Shyh-Jou, and Tsun-Chih Cheng. 2015. “Regeneration and Repair of Human Digits and Limbs: Fact and Fiction.” Regeneration (Oxford, England) 2 (4): 149–68.
  21. Jafari, Paris, Camillo Muller, Anthony Grognuz, Lee Ann Applegate, Wassim Raffoul, Pietro G. di Summa, and Sébastien Durand. 2017. “First Insights into Human Fingertip Regeneration by Echo-Doppler Imaging and Wound Microenvironment Assessment.” International Journal of Molecular Sciences 18 (5). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18051054.
  22. Mescher, Anthony L., Anton W. Neff, and Michael W. King. 2017. “Inflammation and Immunity in Organ Regeneration.” Developmental and Comparative Immunology 66 (January): 98–110.
  23. Elmore, Susan. 2007. “Apoptosis: A Review of Programmed Cell Death.” Toxicologic Pathology 35 (4): 495–516.
  24. Kurata, Y., Y. Nishioeda, T. Tsubakio, and T. Kitani. 1980. “Thrombocytopenia in Graves’ Disease: Effect of T3 on Platelet Kinetics.” Acta Haematologica 63 (4): 185–90.
  25. Aprahamian, T., Y. Takemura, D. Goukassian, and K. Walsh. 2008. “Ageing Is Associated with Diminished Apoptotic Cell Clearance in Vivo.” Clinical and Experimental Immunology 152 (3): 448–55.
  26. Aprahamian, T., Y. Takemura, D. Goukassian, and K. Walsh. 2008. “Ageing Is Associated with Diminished Apoptotic Cell Clearance in Vivo.” Clinical and Experimental Immunology 152 (3): 448–55.
  27. Zhong, Zhi, Micheal D. Wheeler, Xiangli Li, Matthias Froh, Peter Schemmer, Ming Yin, Hartwig Bunzendaul, Blair Bradford, and John J. Lemasters. 2003. “L-Glycine: A Novel Antiinflammatory, Immunomodulatory, and Cytoprotective Agent.” Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 6 (2): 229–40.
  28. Purves, Dale, George J. Augustine, David Fitzpatrick, Lawrence C. Katz, Anthony-Samuel LaMantia, James O. McNamara, and S. Mark Williams. 2001. GABA and Glycine. Sinauer Associates.
  29. Lynch, Joseph W. 2004. “Molecular Structure and Function of the Glycine Receptor Chloride Channel.” Physiological Reviews 84 (4): 1051–95.
  30. Van den Eynden, Jimmy, Sheen Saheb Ali, Nikki Horwood, Sofie Carmans, Bert Brône, Niels Hellings, Paul Steels, Robert J. Harvey, and Jean-Michel Rigo. 2009. “Glycine and Glycine Receptor Signalling in Non-Neuronal Cells.” Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience 2 (August): 9.
  31. (Valtsu), Vladimir Heiskanen, and View my Complete Profile. n.d. “Valtsu’s.” Accessed April 1, 2021. https://valtsus.blogspot.com/2013/12/glycine.html.
  32. Stone, Matt. 2014. “Diet and Inflammation Part 4 – 180 Degree Health.” September 20, 2014. https://180degreehealth.com/diet-inflammation-part-4/.
  33. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2003 Apr;134(4):521-7. Effect of glycine in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Alvarado-Vásquez N, Zamudio P, Cerón E, Vanda B, Zenteno E, Carvajal-Sandoval G.
  34. Mol Vis. 2012;18:439-48. Glycine therapy inhibits the progression of cataract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Bahmani F, Bathaie SZ, Aldavood SJ, Ghahghaei A.
  35. Rev Alerg Mex. 2006 Nov-Dec;53(6):212-6. Effect of glycine on the immune response of the experimentally diabetic rats. Lezcano Meza D, Terán Ortiz L, Carvajal Sandoval G, Gutiérrez de la Cadena M, Terán Escandón D, Estrada Parra S.
  36. Rev Med Chil. 2010 Oct;138(10):1246-52. [Effects of glycine on auditory evoked potentials among diabetic patients with auditory pathway neuropathy]. [Article in Spanish] Muñoz-Carlin Mde L, Rodríguez-Moctezuma JR, Gómez Latorre JG, Montes-Castillo ML, Juárez-Adauta S.
  37. Life Sci. 2006 Jun 13;79(3):225-32. Oral glycine administration attenuates diabetic complications in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Alvarado-Vásquez N, Lascurain R, Cerón E, Vanda B, Carvajal-Sandoval G, Tapia A, Guevara J, Montaño LF, Zenteno E.
  38. Journal of Kerman University of Medical Sciences 2014;21 Assessment of Oral Glycine and Lysine Therapy on Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products and Transforming Growth Factor Beta Expression in the Kidney of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats in Comparison with Normal Rats. Somayeh Sadat Heidary, M.Sc., et al.
  39. Journal of Experimental & Clinical Medicine 2013;5:109-114 Effect of Glycine on Protein Oxidation and Advanced Glycation End Products Formation Salinas Arreortua Noe, García Lorenzana Mario, Genoveva Durán Reyes, Villagómez Jasso Edgar Iván, Alarcón Aguilar Francisco Javier, Gómez Olivares José Luis “The experimental data demonstrate that glycine reduced glucose, HbA1C, and fructosamine levels in blood. Even more, glycine significantly reduced AGE-BSA conformation, but the reduction of protein oxidation occurred only in the kidneys.”
  40. Carcinogenesis. 1999 Nov;20(11):2075-81. Dietary glycine prevents the development of liver tumors caused by the peroxisome proliferator WY-14,643. Rose ML, Cattley RC, Dunn C, Wong V, Li X, Thurman RG.
  41. “Turmeric.” n.d. Accessed April 1, 2021. https://www.nccih.nih.gov/health/turmeric.
  42. Kuptniratsaikul, Vilai, Sunee Thanakhumtorn, Pornsiri Chinswangwatanakul, Luksamee Wattanamongkonsil, and Visanu Thamlikitkul. 2009. “Efficacy and Safety of Curcuma Domestica Extracts in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis.” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 15 (8): 891–97.
  43. Daily, James W., Mini Yang, and Sunmin Park. 2016. “Efficacy of Turmeric Extracts and Curcumin for Alleviating the Symptoms of Joint Arthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.” Journal of Medicinal Food 19 (8): 717–29.
  44. “Supplement and Herb Guide for Arthritis Symptoms.” n.d. Accessed April 1, 2021. https://www.arthritis.org/health-wellness/treatment/complementary-therapies/supplements-and-vitamins/supplement-and-herb-guide-for-arthritis-symptoms.
  45. Kim, Dong-Chan, Sae-Kwang Ku, and Jong-Sup Bae. 2012. “Anticoagulant Activities of Curcumin and Its Derivative.” BMB Reports 45 (4): 221–26.
  46. Kulkarni, S. K., and A. Dhir. 2010. “An Overview of Curcumin in Neurological Disorders.” Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 72 (2): 149–54.
  47. Kathleen Jade, N. D. 2019. “2 Natural Antidepressants Found to Be as Effective as Prozac – University Health News.” March 21, 2019. https://universityhealthnews.com/daily/depression/2-natural-antidepressants-found-to-be-as-effective-as-prozac/.
  48. Yu, Jing-Jie, Liu-Bao Pei, Yong Zhang, Zi-Yu Wen, and Jian-Li Yang. 2015. “Chronic Supplementation of Curcumin Enhances the Efficacy of Antidepressants in Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study.” Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 35 (4): 406–10.
  49. Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacob, Gustavo Roberto Thomé, Vera Maria Morsch, Nathieli B. Bottari, Jucimara Baldissarelli, Lizielle Souza de Oliveira, Jeferson Ferraz Goularte, et al. 2016. “Effect of Ginger and Turmeric Rhizomes on Inflammatory Cytokines Levels and Enzyme Activities of Cholinergic and Purinergic Systems in Hypertensive Rats.” Planta Medica 82 (7): 612–20.
  50. Charles, V., and S. X. Charles. 1992. “The Use and Efficacy of Azadirachta Indica ADR (’Neem’) and Curcuma Longa (‘Turmeric’) in Scabies. A Pilot Study.” Tropical and Geographical Medicine 44 (1-2): 178–81.
  51. Siddiqui, M. Z. 2011. “Boswellia Serrata, a Potential Antiinflammatory Agent: An Overview.” Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 73 (3): 255–61.
  52. Su, Shulan, Jinao Duan, Ting Chen, Xiaochen Huang, Erxin Shang, Li Yu, Kaifeng Wei, et al. 2015. “Frankincense and Myrrh Suppress Inflammation via Regulation of the Metabolic Profiling and the MAPK Signaling Pathway.” Scientific Reports 5 (September): 13668.
  53. Ernst, E. 2008. “Frankincense: Systematic Review.” BMJ 337 (December): a2813.
  54. Blain, Emma J., Ahmed Y. Ali, and Victor C. Duance. 2010. “Boswellia Frereana (frankincense) Suppresses Cytokine-Induced Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression and Production of pro-Inflammatory Molecules in Articular Cartilage.” Phytotherapy Research: PTR 24 (6): 905–12.
  55. Blain, Emma J., Ahmed Y. Ali, and Victor C. Duance. 2010. “Boswellia Frereana (frankincense) Suppresses Cytokine-Induced Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression and Production of pro-Inflammatory Molecules in Articular Cartilage.” Phytotherapy Research: PTR 24 (6): 905–12.
  56. Straube, Sebastian, Martin R. Tramèr, R. Andrew Moore, Sheena Derry, and Henry J. McQuay. 2009. “Mortality with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Perforation: Effects of Time and NSAID Use.” BMC Gastroenterology 9 (June): 41.
  57. Straube, Sebastian, Martin R. Tramèr, R. Andrew Moore, Sheena Derry, and Henry J. McQuay. 2009. “Mortality with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Perforation: Effects of Time and NSAID Use.” BMC Gastroenterology 9 (June): 41.
  58. Roxas, Mario. 2008. “The Role of Enzyme Supplementation in Digestive Disorders.” Alternative Medicine Review: A Journal of Clinical Therapeutic 13 (4): 307–14.
  59. Kerkhoffs, G. M. M. J., P. A. A. Struijs, C. de Wit, V. W. Rahlfs, H. Zwipp, and C. N. van Dijk. 2004. “A Double Blind, Randomised, Parallel Group Study on the Efficacy and Safety of Treating Acute Lateral Ankle Sprain with Oral Hydrolytic Enzymes.” British Journal of Sports Medicine 38 (4): 431–35.
  60. Kamenícek, V., P. Holán, and P. Franĕk. 2001. “[Systemic enzyme therapy in the treatment and prevention of post-traumatic and postoperative swelling].” Acta chirurgiae orthopaedicae et traumatologiae Cechoslovaca 68 (1): 45–49.
  61. Secor, Eric R., Jr, Sonali J. Shah, Linda A. Guernsey, Craig M. Schramm, and Roger S. Thrall. 2012. “Bromelain Limits Airway Inflammation in an Ovalbumin-Induced Murine Model of Established Asthma.” Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 18 (5): 9–17.
  62. Brien, Sarah, George Lewith, Ann Walker, Stephen M. Hicks, and Dick Middleton. 2004. “Bromelain as a Treatment for Osteoarthritis: A Review of Clinical Studies.” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: eCAM 1 (3): 251–57.
  63. Boss A, Bishop K, Marlow G, Barnett M, Ferguson L. Evidence to Support the Anti Effect of Olive Leaf Extract and Future Directions. Nutrients. 2016;8(8). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27548217.
  64. Abunab H, Dator W, Hawamdeh S. Effect of olive leaf extract on glucose levels in diabetes-induced rats: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Diabetes. 2017;9(10):947-957. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27860303.
  65. Lockyer S, Rowland I, Spencer J, Yaqoob P, Stonehouse W. Impact of phenolic-rich olive leaf extract on blood pressure, plasma lipids and inflammatory markers: a randomised controlled trial. Eur J Nutr. 2017;56(4):1421-1432. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26951205.
  66. Vogel P, Kasper M, Garavaglia J, Zani V, de S, Morelo D. Polyphenols benefits of olive leaf (Olea europaea L) to human health. Nutr Hosp. 2014;31(3):1427-1433. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25726243.
  67. Boss A, Kao C, Murray P, Marlow G, Barnett M, Ferguson L. Human Intervention Study to Assess the Effects of Supplementation with Olive Leaf Extract on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Gene Expression. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17(12). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27918443.
  68. Romero C, Medina E, Mateo M, Brenes M. Quantification of bioactive compounds in Picual and Arbequina olive leaves and fruit. J Sci Food Agric. 2017;97(6):1725-1732. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27447942.
  69. Booz G. Cannabidiol as an emergent therapeutic strategy for lessening the impact of inflammation on oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011;51(5):1054-1061. [PubMed]
  70. Rajesh M, Mukhopadhyay P, Bátkai S, et al. Cannabidiol attenuates cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and inflammatory and cell death signaling pathways in diabetic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;56(25):2115-2125. [PubMed]
  71. Weiss L, Zeira M, Reich S, et al. Cannabidiol lowers incidence of diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice. Autoimmunity. 2006;39(2):143-151. [PubMed]
  72. Izzo A, Borrelli F, Capasso R, Di M, Mechoulam R. Non-psychotropic plant cannabinoids: new therapeutic opportunities from an ancient herb. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2009;30(10):515-527. [PubMed]
  73. Shi P, Diez-Freire C, Jun J, et al. Brain microglial cytokines in neurogenic hypertension. Hypertension. 2010;56(2):297-303. [PubMed]
  74. Zuardi A. Cannabidiol: from an inactive cannabinoid to a drug with wide spectrum of action. Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2008;30(3):271-280. [PubMed]
  75. Pertwee R. The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;153(2):199-215. [PubMed]
  76. Toth C, Jedrzejewski N, Ellis C, Frey W. Cannabinoid-mediated modulation of neuropathic pain and microglial accumulation in a model of murine type I diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain. Mol Pain. 2010;6:16. [PubMed]
  77. Kim D, You B, Jo E, Han S, Simon M, Lee S. NADPH oxidase 2-derived reactive oxygen species in spinal cord microglia contribute to peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107(33):14851-14856. [PubMed]
  78. Malfait A, Gallily R, Sumariwalla P, et al. The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97(17):9561-9566. [PubMed]
  79. Toth C, Jedrzejewski N, Ellis C, Frey W. Cannabinoid-mediated modulation of neuropathic pain and microglial accumulation in a model of murine type I diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain. Mol Pain. 2010;6:16. [PubMed]
  80. Weiss L, Zeira M, Reich S, et al. Cannabidiol arrests onset of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. Neuropharmacology. 2008;54(1):244-249. [PubMed]
  81. Pacher P, Beckman J, Liaudet L. Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in health and disease. Physiol Rev. 2007;87(1):315-424. [PubMed]
  82. Rajesh M, Mukhopadhyay P, Bátkai S, et al. Cannabidiol attenuates high glucose-induced endothelial cell inflammatory response and barrier disruption. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;293(1):H610-9. [PubMed]
  83. El-Remessy A, Al-Shabrawey M, Khalifa Y, Tsai N, Caldwell R, Liou G. Neuroprotective and blood-retinal barrier-preserving effects of cannabidiol in experimental diabetes. Am J Pathol. 2006;168(1):235-244. [PubMed]
  84. Maes M, Galecki P, Chang Y, Berk M. A review on the oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) pathways in major depression and their possible contribution to the (neuro)degenerative processes in that illness. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2011;35(3):676-692. [PubMed]
  85. Song C, Wang H. Cytokines mediated inflammation and decreased neurogenesis in animal models of depression. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2011;35(3):760-768. [PubMed]
  86. El-Alfy A, Ivey K, Robinson K, et al. Antidepressant-like effect of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2010;95(4):434-442. [PubMed]
  87. Zanelati T, Biojone C, Moreira F, Guimarães F, Joca S. Antidepressant-like effects of cannabidiol in mice: possible involvement of 5-HT1A receptors. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;159(1):122-128. [PubMed]
  88. Brown, Greg, John J. Albers, Lloyd D. Fisher, Susan M. Schaefer, Jiin-Tarng Lin, Cheryl Kaplan, Xue-Qiao Zhao, Brad D. Bisson, Virginia F. Fitzpatrick, and Harold T. Dodge. 1990. “Regression of Coronary Artery Disease as a Result of Intensive Lipid-Lowering Therapy in Men with High Levels of Apolipoprotein B.” The New England Journal of Medicine 323 (19): 1289–98.
  89. Martin, David L. 1994. “Pyridoxal Phosphate, GABA and Seizure Susceptibility.” In Biochemistry of Vitamin B6 and PQQ, 343–47. Birkhäuser Basel.
  90. Miodownik, Chanoch, Vladimir Lerner, Tali Vishne, Ben-Ami Sela, and Joseph Levine. 2007. “High-Dose Vitamin B6 Decreases Homocysteine Serum Levels in Patients with Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorders: A Preliminary Study.” Clinical Neuropharmacology 30 (1): 13–17.
  91. Cattaneo, Marco. 2017. “Hyperhomocysteinemia, Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis.” Thrombosis and Haemostasis 81 (02): 165–76.
  92. Nelen, W. L., H. J. Blom, E. A. Steegers, M. den Heijer, C. M. Thomas, and T. K. Eskes. 2000. “Homocysteine and Folate Levels as Risk Factors for Recurrent Early Pregnancy Loss.” Obstetrics and Gynecology 95 (4): 519–24.
  93. Put, N. M. van der, H. W. van Straaten, F. J. Trijbels, and H. J. Blom. 2001. “Folate, Homocysteine and Neural Tube Defects: An Overview.” Experimental Biology and Medicine 226 (4): 243–70.
  94. Dietrich-Muszalska, Anna, Joanna Malinowska, Beata Olas, Rafal Głowacki, Edward Bald, Barbara Wachowicz, and Jolanta Rabe-Jabłońska. 2012. “The Oxidative Stress May Be Induced by the Elevated Homocysteine in Schizophrenic Patients.” Neurochemical Research 37 (5): 1057–62.
  95. Morris, Martha Savaria. 2003. “Homocysteine and Alzheimer’s Disease.” Lancet Neurology 2 (7): 425–28.
  96. Smach, Mohamed Ali, Nelly Jacob, Jean-Louis Golmard, Bassem Charfeddine, Turkia Lammouchi, Leila Ben Othman, Hedi Dridi, Soufien Bennamou, and Khalifa Limem. 2011. “Folate and Homocysteine in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease or Dementia: A Case Control Study.” European Neurology 65 (5): 270–78.
  97. Walsh, William J. 2014. Nutrient Power: Heal Your Biochemistry and Heal Your Brain. Revised, Updated ed. edition. Skyhorse.

Serotonin

  1. “Declassified.” n.d. Accessed April 2, 2021. https://web.archive.org/web/20020131081305/http://www.michael-robinett.com/declass/c011.htm.
  2. Mansnerus, Laura. 1996. “Timothy Leary, Pied Piper Of Psychedelic 60’s, Dies at 75.” The New York Times, June 1, 1996. https://www.nytimes.com/1996/06/01/us/timothy-leary-pied-piper-of-psychedelic-60-s-dies-at-75.html.
  3. AlterNet. 2017. “He Was No Hippie: Remembering Manson, Prison, Scientology and Mind Control.” Raw Story – Celebrating 16 Years of Independent Journalism. November 26, 2017. https://www.rawstory.com/2017/11/he-was-no-hippie-remembering-manson-prison-scientology-and-mind-control/.
  4. Babenko, V., P. Svensson, T. Graven-Nielsen, A. M. Drewes, T. S. Jensen, and L. Arendt-Nielsen. 2000. “Duration and Distribution of Experimental Muscle Hyperalgesia in Humans Following Combined Infusions of Serotonin and Bradykinin.” Brain Research 853 (2): 275–81.
  5. Hamel, E. 2007. “Serotonin and Migraine: Biology and Clinical Implications.” Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache 27 (11): 1293–1300.
  6. “Can-Long-Term-Antidepressant-Use-Be-Depressogenic.pdf.” n.d. https://www.madinamerica.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Can-long-term-andtidepressant-use-be-depressogenic.pdf.
  7. Goldberg, D., M. Privett, B. Ustun, G. Simon, and M. Linden. 1998. “The Effects of Detection and Treatment on the Outcome of Major Depression in Primary Care: A Naturalistic Study in 15 Cities.” The British Journal of General Practice: The Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners 48 (437): 1840–44.
  8. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMsa065779
  9. Kirsch, Irving, Brett J. Deacon, Tania B. Huedo-Medina, Alan Scoboria, Thomas J. Moore, and Blair T. Johnson. 2008. “Initial Severity and Antidepressant Benefits: A Meta-Analysis of Data Submitted to the Food and Drug Administration.” PLoS Medicine 5 (2): e45.
  10. Moncrieff, J., S. Wessely, and R. Hardy. 2004. “Active Placebos versus Antidepressants for Depression.” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews , no. 1: CD003012.
  11. Moncrieff, J., S. Wessely, and R. Hardy. 1998. “Meta-Analysis of Trials Comparing Antidepressants with Active Placebos.” The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science 172 (March): 227–31; discussion 232–34.
  12. Khan, A., H. A. Warner, and W. A. Brown. 2000. “Symptom Reduction and Suicide Risk in Patients Treated with Placebo in Antidepressant Clinical Trials: An Analysis of the Food and Drug Administration Database.” Archives of General Psychiatry 57 (4): 311–17.
  13. Leon, A. C. 2000. “Placebo Protects Subjects from Nonresponse: A Paradox of Power.” Archives of General Psychiatry.
  14. Turner, Erick H., Annette M. Matthews, Eftihia Linardatos, Robert A. Tell, and Robert Rosenthal. 2008. “Selective Publication of Antidepressant Trials and Its Influence on Apparent Efficacy.” The New England Journal of Medicine 358 (3): 252–60.
  15. Frick, Andreas, Fredrik Åhs, Jonas Engman, My Jonasson, Iman Alaie, Johannes Björkstrand, Örjan Frans, et al. 2015. “Serotonin Synthesis and Reuptake in Social Anxiety Disorder: A Positron Emission Tomography Study.” JAMA Psychiatry 72 (8): 794–802.
  16. Zuardi, A. W. 1990. “5-HT-Related Drugs and Human Experimental Anxiety.” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 14 (4): 507–10.
  17. Zimmerman, D., H. E. Abboud, L. E. George, A. J. Edis, and T. P. Dousa. 1980. “Serotonin Stimulates Adenosine 3’,5′-Monophosphate Accumulation in Parathyroid Adenoma.” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 51 (6): 1274–78.
  18. Santos, Lucinéia dos, Telma G. C. S. de Andrade, and Frederico G. Graeff. 2010. “Social Separation and Diazepam Withdrawal Increase Anxiety in the Elevated plus-Maze and Serotonin Turnover in the Median Raphe and Hippocampus.” Journal of Psychopharmacology 24 (5): 725–31.
  19. Boer, Sietse F. de, and Jaap M. Koolhaas. 2005. “5-HT1A and 5-HT1B Receptor Agonists and Aggression: A Pharmacological Challenge of the Serotonin Deficiency Hypothesis.” European Journal of Pharmacology 526 (1-3): 125–39.
  20. Perry, George, Marta A. Taddeo, Akihiko Nunomura, Xiongwei Zhu, Tania Zenteno-Savin, Kelly L. Drew, Shun Shimohama, Jesús Avila, Rudolph J. Castellani, and Mark A. Smith. 2002. “Comparative Biology and Pathology of Oxidative Stress in Alzheimer and Other Neurodegenerative Diseases: Beyond Damage and Response.” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP 133 (4): 507–13.
  21. Medvedev, A. E. 1990. “[Regulation by biogenic amines of energy functions of mitochondria].” Voprosy meditsinskoi khimii 36 (5): 18–21.
  22. Hiroi, Ryoko, Ross A. McDevitt, and John F. Neumaier. 2006. “Estrogen Selectively Increases Tryptophan Hydroxylase-2 mRNA Expression in Distinct Subregions of Rat Midbrain Raphe Nucleus: Association between Gene Expression and Anxiety Behavior in the Open Field.” Biological Psychiatry 60 (3): 288–95.
  23. Hansenne, M., and M. Ansseau. 1999. “Harm Avoidance and Serotonin.” Biological Psychology 51 (1): 77–81.
  24. Graeff, F. G., M. B. Viana, and P. O. Mora. 1997. “Dual Role of 5-HT in Defense and Anxiety.” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 21 (6): 791–99.
  25. Anthony, M. 1984. “Serotonin Antagonists.” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine 14 (6): 888–95.
  26. Aleksandrin, V. V., N. N. Tarasova, and I. A. Tarakanov. 2005. “Effect of Serotonin on Respiration, Cerebral Circulation, and Blood Pressure in Rats.” Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine 139 (1): 64–67.
  27. Lacasse, Jeffrey R., and Jonathan Leo. 2005. “Serotonin and Depression: A Disconnect between the Advertisements and the Scientific Literature.” PLoS Medicine 2 (12): e392.
  28. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMsa065779
  29. Yokogoshi, H., Y. Kato, Y. M. Sagesaka, T. Takihara-Matsuura, T. Kakuda, and N. Takeuchi. 1995. “Reduction Effect of Theanine on Blood Pressure and Brain 5-Hydroxyindoles in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.” Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 59 (4): 615–18.
  30. Yokogoshi, H., M. Mochizuki, and K. Saitoh. 1998. “Theanine-Induced Reduction of Brain Serotonin Concentration in Rats.” Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 62 (4): 816–17.

Sugar

  1. Brown, William Redman, Arild Edsten Hansen, George Oswald Burr, and Irvine McQuarrie. 1938. “Effects of Prolonged Use of Extremely Low-Fat Diet on an Adult Human Subject.” The Journal of Nutrition 16 (6): 511–24.
  2. Bacon, Francis. 1898. The Advancement of Learning. Macmillan & Company, Limited.
  3. Burton, Robert. 2008. On Being Certain: Believing You Are Right Even When You’re Not. 1st ed. St. Martin’s Press.
  4. Scientific American. 2008. “The Certainty Bias: A Potentially Dangerous Mental Flaw,” October 9, 2008. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-certainty-bias/.
  5. “William James.” 2014. August 18, 2014. https://www.giffordlectures.org/lecturers/william-james.
  6. Smith, William, and Rajendrani Mukhopadhyay. 2012. “Essential Fatty Acids: The Work of George and Mildred Burr.” The Journal of Biological Chemistry 287 (42): 35439–41.
  7. Bernays, Edward, and Mark Crispin Miller. 2004. Propaganda. Ig Publishing.
  8. “Obesity and Overweight.” n.d. Accessed November 13, 2020. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-and-overweight.
  9. Ravnskov, Uffe, Michel de Lorgeril, David M. Diamond, Rokuro Hama, Tomohito Hamazaki, Björn Hammarskjöld, Niamh Hynes, et al. 2018. “LDL-C Does Not Cause Cardiovascular Disease: A Comprehensive Review of the Current Literature.” Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology 11 (10): 959–70.
  10. Barclay, Alan W., and Jennie Brand-Miller. 2011. “The Australian Paradox: A Substantial Decline in Sugars Intake over the Same Timeframe That Overweight and Obesity Have Increased.” Nutrients 3 (4): 491–504.
  11. Berg, Jeremy M., John L. Tymoczko, and Lubert Stryer. 2002. Each Organ Has a Unique Metabolic Profile. W H Freeman.
  12. Golay, A., A. F. Allaz, Y. Morel, N. de Tonnac, S. Tankova, and G. Reaven. 1996. “Similar Weight Loss with Low- or High-Carbohydrate Diets.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 63 (2): 174–78.
  13. Libretexts. 2016. “5.2: Carbohydrate Structures.” Libretexts. August 5, 2016. https://chem.libretexts.org/Courses/University_of_Kentucky/UK%3A_CHE_103_-_Chemistry_for_Allied_Health_(Soult)/Chapters/Chapter_5%3A_Properties_of_Compounds/5.2%3A_Carbohydrate_Structures.
  14. “Carbohydrates.” n.d. Accessed March 31, 2021. https://dlc.dcccd.edu/biology1-3/carbohydrates.
  15. Libretexts. 2017. “4.4: Nucleic Acids.” Libretexts. March 26, 2017. https://bio.libretexts.org/Courses/University_of_California_Davis/BIS_2A%3A_Introductory_Biology_(Easlon)/Readings/04.4%3A_Nucleic_Acids.
  16. “Carbohydrates.” n.d. Accessed March 31, 2021. http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/1biochem/carbo5.html.
  17. “Gluconeogenesis.” n.d. Accessed March 31, 2021. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/biochemistry-genetics-and-molecular-biology/gluconeogenesis.
  18. Stone, Matt. 2010. “The Catecholamine Honeymoon – 180 Degree Health.” June 10, 2010. https://180degreehealth.com/the-catecholamine-honeymoon/.
  19. Ahmadi-Abhari, Sara, Robert N. Luben, Natasha Powell, Amit Bhaniani, Rajiv Chowdhury, Nicholas J. Wareham, Nita G. Forouhi, and Kay-Tee Khaw. 2014. “Dietary Intake of Carbohydrates and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: The European Prospective Investigation into Norfolk Study.” The British Journal of Nutrition 111 (2): 342–52.
  20. Brundin, T., and J. Wahren. 1993. “Whole Body and Splanchnic Oxygen Consumption and Blood Flow after Oral Ingestion of Fructose or Glucose.” The American Journal of Physiology 264 (4 Pt 1): E504–13.
  21. Cozma, Adrian I., John L. Sievenpiper, Russell J. de Souza, Laura Chiavaroli, Vanessa Ha, D. David Wang, Arash Mirrahimi, et al. 2012. “Effect of Fructose on Glycemic Control in Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Feeding Trials.” Diabetes Care 35 (7): 1611–20.
  22. DeCasien, Alex R., Scott A. Williams, and James P. Higham. 2017. “Primate Brain Size Is Predicted by Diet but Not Sociality.” Nature Ecology & Evolution 1 (5): 112.
  23. Wikipedia contributors. 2021. “Frugivore.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. March 18, 2021. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Frugivore&oldid=1012820799.
  24. Team FPS. n.d. “Ray Peat, PhD on Thyroid, Temperature, Pulse, and TSH.” Accessed March 31, 2021. https://www.functionalps.com/blog/2012/03/25/ray-peat-phd-on-thyroid-temperature-pulse-and-tsh/comment-page-1/.
  25. Kuoppala, Ali. n.d. “Thyroid Boosters: 6 Supplements to Increase T3 & T4.” Accessed March 31, 2021. https://anabolicmen.com/thyroid-supplements/.
  26. “Fructose as a Dieting Tool: 100g Fructose Per Day Exert Sign. Protein Sparing Effects & Ameliorate the Decline in Thyroid Hormones During Starvation Diet in the Obese.” n.d. Accessed March 31, 2021. https://suppversity.blogspot.com/2014/10/fructose-as-dieting-tool-100g-fructose.html.
  27. Hendler, R., and A. A. Bonde. 1990. “Effects of Sucrose on Resting Metabolic Rate, Nitrogen Balance, Leucine Turnover and Oxidation during Weight Loss with Low Calorie Diets.” International Journal of Obesity 14 (11): 927–38.
  28. Gelfand, Robert A., and Robert S. Sherwin. “Nitrogen conservation in starvation revisited: Protein sparing with intravenous fructose.” Metabolism 35.1 (1986): 37-44.
  29. Siyuan Xia, Ruiting Lin, Lingtao Jin, Liang Zhao, Hee-Bum Kang, Yaozhu Pan, Shuangping Liu, Guoqing Qian, Zhiyu Qian, Evmorfia Konstantakou, Baotong Zhang, Jin-Tang Dong, Young Rock Chung, Omar Abdel-Wahab, Taha Merghoub, Lu Zhou, Ragini R. Kudchadkar, David H. Lawson, Hanna J. Khoury, Fadlo R. Khuri, Lawrence H. Boise, Sagar Lonial, Benjamin H. Lee, Brian P. Pollack, Jack L. Arbiser, Jun Fan, Qun-Ying Lei, Jing Chen. Prevention of Dietary-Fat-Fueled Ketogenesis Attenuates BRAF V600E Tumor GrowthCell Metabolism, 2017; DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2016.12.010
  30. Pierotti, Marco A., Gabriella Sozzi, and Carlo M. Croce. 2003. Mechanisms of Oncogene Activation. BC Decker.
  31. Science X staff. 2010. “Researchers Find Leukemia Cells Metabolize Fat to Avoid Cell Death.” Medical Xpress. January 27, 2010. https://medicalxpress.com/news/2010-01-leukemia-cells-metabolize-fat-cell.html.
  32. Currie, Erin, Almut Schulze, Rudolf Zechner, Tobias C. Walther, and Robert V. Farese Jr. 2013. “Cellular Fatty Acid Metabolism.” Cell Metabolism 18 (2): 153–61.
  33. Choi, Yeon-Kyung, and Keun-Gyu Park. 2018. “Targeting Glutamine Metabolism for Treatment.” Biomolecules & Therapeutics 26 (1): 19–28.
  34. “Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD).” 2017. July 31, 2017. https://liverfoundation.org/for-patients/about-the-liver/diseases-of-the-liver/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease/.
  35. Anundi, I., J. King, D. A. Owen, H. Schneider, J. J. Lemasters, and R. G. Thurman. 1987. “Fructose Prevents Hypoxic Cell Death in Liver.” The American Journal of Physiology 253 (3 Pt 1): G390–96.
  36. Kuoppala, Ali. n.d. “Choline and Testosterone: Why Deficiency Hurts Hormones.” Accessed March 31, 2021. https://anabolicmen.com/choline-deficiency/.
  37. Best, C. H., and W. S. Hartroft. 1949. “Liver Damage Produced by Feeding Alcohol or Sugar and Its Prevention by Choline.” British Medical Journal 2 (4635): 1002–6, pl.
  38. Pan, Meihui, Arthur I. Cederbaum, Yuan-Li Zhang, Henry N. Ginsberg, Kevin Jon Williams, and Edward A. Fisher. 2004. “Lipid Peroxidation and Oxidant Stress Regulate Hepatic Apolipoprotein B Degradation and VLDL Production.” The Journal of Clinical Investigation 113 (9): 1277–87.
  39. Corbin, Karen D., and Steven H. Zeisel. 2012. “Choline Metabolism Provides Novel Insights into Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Its Progression.” Current Opinion in Gastroenterology 28 (2): 159–65.
  40. Wallace, Taylor C., Michael McBurney, and Victor L. Fulgoni 3rd. 2014. “Multivitamin/mineral Supplement Contribution to Micronutrient Intakes in the United States, 2007-2010.” Journal of the American College of Nutrition 33 (2): 94–102.
  41. “Liver Disease Statistics.” 2017. October 26, 2017. https://liverfoundation.org/liver-disease-statistics/.
  42. Harvey, Cliff J. D. C., Grant M. Schofield, and Micalla Williden. 2018. “The Use of Nutritional Supplements to Induce Ketosis and Reduce Symptoms Associated with Keto-Induction: A Narrative Review.” PeerJ 6 (March): e4488.
  43. Chidakel, A., D. Mentuccia, and F. S. Celi. 2005. “Peripheral Metabolism of Thyroid Hormone and Glucose Homeostasis.” Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association 15 (8): 899–903.
  44. Cahoreau, Claire, Danièle Klett, and Yves Combarnous. 2015. “Structure-Function Relationships of Glycoprotein Hormones and Their Subunits’ Ancestors.” Frontiers in Endocrinology 6 (February): 26.
  45. Spaulding, S. W., I. J. Chopra, R. S. Sherwin, and S. S. Lyall. 1976. “Effect of Caloric Restriction and Dietary Composition of Serum T3 and Reverse T3 in Man.” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 42 (1): 197–200.
  46. McCarty, M. F. 1995. “Central Insulin May up-Regulate Thyroid Activity by Suppressing Neuropeptide Y Release in the Paraventricular Nucleus.” Medical Hypotheses 45 (2): 193–99.
  47. Wheless, James W. 2008. “History of the Ketogenic Diet.” Epilepsia 49 Suppl 8 (November): 3–5.
  48. Bisschop, P. H., H. P. Sauerwein, E. Endert, and J. A. Romijn. 2001. “Isocaloric Carbohydrate Deprivation Induces Protein Catabolism despite a Low T3-Syndrome in Healthy Men.” Clinical Endocrinology 54 (1): 75–80.
  49. Azizi, F. 1978. “Effect of Dietary Composition on Fasting-Induced Changes in Serum Thyroid Hormones and Thyrotropin.” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental 27 (8): 935–42.
  50. Burman, K. D., R. C. Dimond, G. S. Harvey, J. T. O’Brian, L. P. Georges, J. Bruton, F. D. Wright, and L. Wartofsky. 1979. “Glucose Modulation of Alterations in Serum Iodothyronine Concentrations Induced by Fasting.” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental 28 (4): 291–99.
  51. Burke, Louise M., Bente Kiens, and John L. Ivy. 2004. “Carbohydrates and Fat for Training and Recovery.” Journal of Sports Sciences 22 (1): 15–30.
  52. Langfort, J., R. Zarzeczny, W. Pilis, K. Nazar, and H. Kaciuba-Uścitko. 1997. “The Effect of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Performance, Hormonal and Metabolic Responses to a 30-S Bout of Supramaximal Exercise.” European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology 76 (2): 128–33.
  53. Maughan, R. J., P. L. Greenhaff, J. B. Leiper, D. Ball, C. P. Lambert, and M. Gleeson. 1997. “Diet Composition and the Performance of High-Intensity Exercise.” Journal of Sports Sciences 15 (3): 265–75.
  54. Pinckaers, Philippe J. M., Tyler A. Churchward-Venne, David Bailey, and Luc J. C. van Loon. 2017. “Ketone Bodies and Exercise Performance: The Next Magic Bullet or Merely Hype?” Sports Medicine 47 (3): 383–91.
  55. Cox, Pete J., Tom Kirk, Tom Ashmore, Kristof Willerton, Rhys Evans, Alan Smith, Andrew J. Murray, et al. 2016. “Nutritional Ketosis Alters Fuel Preference and Thereby Endurance Performance in Athletes.” Cell Metabolism 24 (2): 256–68.
  56. Zinn, Caryn, Matthew Wood, Mikki Williden, Simon Chatterton, and Ed Maunder. 2017. “Ketogenic Diet Benefits Body Composition and Well-Being but Not Performance in a Pilot Case Study of New Zealand Endurance Athletes.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 14 (July): 22.
  57. Urbain, Paul, Lena Strom, Lena Morawski, Anja Wehrle, Peter Deibert, and Hartmut Bertz. 2017. “Impact of a 6-Week Non-Energy-Restricted Ketogenic Diet on Physical Fitness, Body Composition and Biochemical Parameters in Healthy Adults.” Nutrition & Metabolism 14 (February): 17.
  58. Burke, Louise M., Megan L. Ross, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Marijke Welvaert, Ida A. Heikura, Sara G. Forbes, Joanne G. Mirtschin, et al. 2017. “Low Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet Impairs Exercise Economy and Negates the Performance Benefit from Intensified Training in Elite Race Walkers.” The Journal of Physiology 595 (9): 2785–2807.
  59. Phinney, Stephen D. 2004. “Ketogenic Diets and Physical Performance.” Nutrition & Metabolism 1 (1): 2.
  60. “High-Fat Diet Affects Physical and Memory Abilities.” 2009. August 13, 2009. https://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/high-fat-diet-affects-physical-and-memory-abilities.
  61. Tagliabue, Anna, Simona Bertoli, Claudia Trentani, Paola Borrelli, and Pierangelo Veggiotti. 2012. “Effects of the Ketogenic Diet on Nutritional Status, Resting Energy Expenditure, and Substrate Oxidation in Patients with Medically Refractory Epilepsy: A 6-Month Prospective Observational Study.” Clinical Nutrition 31 (2): 246–49.
  62. Harber, Matthew P., Simon Schenk, Ariel L. Barkan, and Jeffrey F. Horowitz. 2005. “Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Restriction with High Protein Intake on Protein Metabolism and the Somatotropic Axis.” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 90 (9): 5175–81.
  63. Bravata, Dena M., Lisa Sanders, Jane Huang, Harlan M. Krumholz, Ingram Olkin, Christopher D. Gardner, and Dawn M. Bravata. 2003. “Efficacy and Safety of Low-Carbohydrate Diets: A Systematic Review.” JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 289 (14): 1837–50.
  64. Boden, Guenther, Karin Sargrad, Carol Homko, Maria Mozzoli, and T. Peter Stein. 2005. “Effect of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Appetite, Blood Glucose Levels, and Insulin Resistance in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.” Annals of Internal Medicine 142 (6): 403–11.
  65. Astrup, Arne, Arne Astrup, Benjamin Buemann, Anne Flint, and Anne Raben. 2002. “Low-Fat Diets and Energy Balance: How Does the Evidence Stand in 2002?” The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 61 (2): 299–309.
  66. Yang, M. U., and T. B. Van Itallie. 1976. “Composition of Weight Lost during Short-Term Weight Reduction. Metabolic Responses of Obese Subjects to Starvation and Low-Calorie Ketogenic and Nonketogenic Diets.” The Journal of Clinical Investigation 58 (3): 722–30.
  67. Murphy, E. Angela, Kandy T. Velazquez, and Kyle M. Herbert. 2015. “Influence of High-Fat Diet on Gut Microbiota: A Driving Force for Chronic Disease Risk.” Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 18 (5): 515–20.
  68. Zhang, Mei, and Xiao-Jiao Yang. 2016. “Effects of a High Fat Diet on Intestinal Microbiota and Gastrointestinal Diseases.” World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG 22 (40): 8905–9.
  69. Brown, G. K. 2000. “Glucose Transporters: Structure, Function and Consequences of Deficiency.” Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 23 (3): 237–46.
  70. Phinney, S. D., B. R. Bistrian, R. R. Wolfe, and G. L. Blackburn. 1983. “The Human Metabolic Response to Chronic Ketosis without Caloric Restriction: Physical and Biochemical Adaptation.” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental 32 (8): 757–68.
  71. Harber, Matthew P., Simon Schenk, Ariel L. Barkan, and Jeffrey F. Horowitz. 2005. “Alterations in Carbohydrate Metabolism in Response to Short-Term Dietary Carbohydrate Restriction.” American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism 289 (2): E306–12.
  72. Sandu, Oana, Keying Song, Weijing Cai, Feng Zheng, Jaime Uribarri, and Helen Vlassara. 2005. “Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes in High-Fat-Fed Mice Are Linked to High Glycotoxin Intake.” Diabetes 54 (8): 2314–19.
  73. Kusunoki, M., G. J. Cooney, T. Hara, and L. H. Storlien. 1995. “Amelioration of High-Fat Feeding-Induced Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle with the Antiglucocorticoid RU486.” Diabetes 44 (6): 718–20.
  74. Ikemoto, S., Kimberly S. THOMPSONt, Mayumi Takahashi, H. Itakura, M. DANIEL LANEt, and O. Ezaki. 2005. “High Fat Diet-Induced Hyperglycemia : Prevention by Low Level Expression of a Glucose Transporter ( GLUT 4 ) Minigene in Transgenic Mice ( Insulin Resistance / Type 2 Diabetes ).” https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/7066b17637d4e5e007f521cd42d1fe8e6393f54a.
  75. Felber, J. P., E. Ferrannini, A. Golay, H. U. Meyer, D. Theibaud, B. Curchod, E. Maeder, E. Jequier, and R. A. DeFronzo. 1987. “Role of Lipid Oxidation in Pathogenesis of Insulin Resistance of Obesity and Type II Diabetes.” Diabetes 36 (11): 1341–50.
  76. n.d. http://europepmc.org/article/med/7621976.
  77. Dobbins, Robert L., Lidia S. Szczepaniak, Jeff Myhill, Yoshifumi Tamura, Hiroshi Uchino, Adria Giacca, and J. Denis McGarry. 2002. “The Composition of Dietary Fat Directly Influences Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion in Rats.” Diabetes 51 (6): 1825–33.
  78. Bantle, J. P., J. E. Swanson, W. Thomas, and D. C. Laine. 1993. “Metabolic Effects of Dietary Sucrose in Type II Diabetic Subjects.” Diabetes Care 16 (9): 1301–5.
  79. Mithal, A., J-P Bonjour, S. Boonen, P. Burckhardt, H. Degens, G. El Hajj Fuleihan, R. Josse, et al. 2013. “Impact of Nutrition on Muscle Mass, Strength, and Performance in Older Adults.” Osteoporosis International: A Journal Established as Result of Cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA 24 (5): 1555–66.
  80. Hahn, T. J., L. R. Halstead, and D. C. DeVivo. 1979. “Disordered Mineral Metabolism Produced by Ketogenic Diet Therapy.” Calcified Tissue International 28 (1): 17–22.
  81. Hahn, T. J., L. R. Halstead, and D. C. DeVivo. 1979. “Disordered Mineral Metabolism Produced by Ketogenic Diet Therapy.” Calcified Tissue International 28 (1): 17–22.
  82. Bergqvist, A. G. Christina, Claire M. Chee, Lisa Lutchka, Jack Rychik, and Virginia A. Stallings. 2003. “Selenium Deficiency Associated with Cardiomyopathy: A Complication of the Ketogenic Diet.” Epilepsia 44 (4): 618–20.
  83. Fery, F., P. Bourdoux, J. Christophe, and E. O. Balasse. 1982. “Hormonal and Metabolic Changes Induced by an Isocaloric Isoproteinic Ketogenic Diet in Healthy Subjects.” Diabete & Metabolisme 8 (4): 299–305.
  84. Hamburg, Naomi M., Craig J. McMackin, Alex L. Huang, Sherene M. Shenouda, Michael E. Widlansky, Eberhard Schulz, Noyan Gokce, Neil B. Ruderman, John F. Keaney Jr, and Joseph A. Vita. 2007. “Physical Inactivity Rapidly Induces Insulin Resistance and Microvascular Dysfunction in Healthy Volunteers.” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 27 (12): 2650–56.
  85. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2713647/
  86. https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/ajpendo.00590.2009

Reishi

  1. Akihisa T, Nakamura Y, Tagata M, editors. et al. Anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor-promoting effects of triterpene acids and sterols from the fungus Ganoderma lucidum. Chem Biodivers. 2007;4:224–31. [PubMed]
  2. Bao X, Liu C, Fang J, Li X. Structural and immunological studies of a major polysaccharide from spores of Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst. Carbohydr Res. 2001;332:67–74. [PubMed]
  3. Bao X, Wang X, Dong Q, Fang J, Li X. Structural features of immunologically active polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum. Phytochemistry. 2002;59:175–81. [PubMed]
  4. Benzie I. F. F, Wachtel-Galor S. Biomarkers of long-term vegetarian diets. Adv Clin Chem. 2009;47:169–220.
  5. Boh B, Berovic M, Zhang J, Zhi-Bin L. Ganoderma lucidum and its pharmaceutically active compounds. Biotechnol Annu Rev. 2007;13:265–301. [PubMed]
  6. Borchers A. T, Krishnamurthy A, Keen C. L, Meyers F. J, Gershwin M. E. The immunobiology of mushrooms. Exp Biol Med. 2008;233:259–76. [PubMed]
  7. Borchers A. T, Stern J. S, Hackman R. M, Keen C. L, Gershwin M. E. Minireview: Mushrooms, tumors and immunity. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1999;221:281–93. [PubMed]
  8. Budavari S. The Merck Index. elevan. New Jersey: Merck & Co., INC; 1989. p. 845.
  9. Cao L. Z, Lin Z. B. Regulation on maturation and function of dendritic cells by Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides. Immunol Lett. 2002;83:163–9. [PubMed]
  10. Cao Q. Z, Lin Z. B. Antitumor and anti-angiogenic activity of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides peptide. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2004;25:833–8. [PubMed]
  11. Cao Q. Z, Lin Z. B. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides peptide inhibits the growth of vascular endothelial cell and the induction of VEGF in human lung cancer cell. Life Sci. 2006;78:1457–63. [PubMed]
  12. Cao Q. Z, Lin S. Q, Wang S. Z. Effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides peptide on invasion of human lung carcinoma cells in vitro. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao. 2007;39:653–6. [PubMed]
  13. Chang S. T, Buswell J. A. Mushroom nutriceuticals. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 1996;12:473–6. [PubMed]
  14. Chang S. T, Buswell J. A. Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst. (Aphyllophoromycetideae): A mushrooming medicinal mushroom. Int J Med Mushrooms. 1999;1:139–46.
  15. Chang S. T, Buswell J. A. Safety, quality control and regulational aspects relating to mushroom nutriceuticals. Proc. 6th Intl. Conf. Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products. 2008:188–95. GAMU Gmbh, Krefeld, Germany.
  16. Chang Y. H, Yang J. S, Yang J. L, editors. et al. Ganoderma lucidum extract promotes immune responses in normal BALB/c mice in vivo. Vivo. 2009;23:755–9. [PubMed]
  17. Chen Y, Bicker W, Wu J, Xie M. Y, Lindner W. Ganoderma species discrimination by dual-mode chromatographic fingerprinting: A study on stationary phase effects in hydrophilic interaction chromatography and reduction of sample misclassification rate by additional use of reversed-phase chromatography. J Chromatogr. 2010;1217(8):1255–65. [PubMed]
  18. Chen T. Q, Li K. B, He X. J, Zhu P. G, Xu J. Micro-morphology, chemical components and identification of log-cultivated Ganoderma lucidum spore. Lu M, Gao K, Si H. -F, Chen M. -J Proc ’98 Nanjing Intl Symp Science & Cultivation of Mushrooms. 1998 214. Nanjing, China. JSTC-ISMS.
  19. Chen D. H, Shiou W. Y, Wang K. C, editors. et al. Chemotaxonomy of triterpenoid pattern of HPLC of Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma tsugae. J Chin Chem Soc. 1999;46:47–51.
  20. Chen H. S, Tsai Y. F, Lin S, editors. et al. Studies on the immuno-modulating and anti-tumor activities of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) polysaccharides. Bioorg Med Chem. 2004;12:5595–601. [PubMed]
  21. Chen Y, Zhu S. B, Xie M. Y, editors. et al. Quality control and original discrimination of Ganoderma lucidum based on high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprints and combined chemometrics methods. Anal Chim Acta. 2008;623:146–56. [PubMed]
  22. Chien C. M, Cheng J. L, Chang W. T, editors. et al. Polysaccharides of Ganoderma lucidum alter cell immunophenotypic expression and enhance CD56+ NK-cell cytotoxicity in cord blood. Bioorg Med Chem. 2004;12:5603–9. [PubMed]
  23. Chiu S. W, Wang Z. M, Leung T. M, Moore D. Nutritional value of Ganoderma extract and assessmentof its genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity using comet assays of mouse lymphocytes. Food Chem Toxicol. 2000;38:173–8. [PubMed]
  24. Chung W. T, Lee S. H, Kim J. D. et al. Effect of mycelial culture broth of Ganoderma lucidum on the growth characteristics of human cell lines. J Biosci Bioeng. 2001;92:550–5. [PubMed]
  25. Collins A. R. Antioxidant intervention as a route to cancer prevention. Eur J Cancer. 2005;41:1923–30. [PubMed]
  26. Donk M. A. A conspectus of the families of Aphyllophorales. Persoonia. 1964;3:19–24.
  27. Du M, Wang C, Hu X. C, Zhao G. Positive effect of selenium on the immune regulation activity of lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W. Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst. (Aphyllophoromycetideae), proteins in vitro. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2008;10:337–44.
  28. El-Mekkawy S, Meselhy M. R, Nakamura N, editors. et al. Anti-HIV-1 and anti-HIV-1-protease substances from Ganoderma lucidum. Phytochemistry. 1998;49:1651–7. [PubMed]
  29. Eo S. K, Kim Y. S, Lee C. K, Han S. S. Antiviral activities of various water and methanol soluble substances isolated from Ganoderma lucidum. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999;68:129–36. [PubMed]
  30. Evans S, Dizeyi N, Abrahamsson P. A, Persson J. The effect of novel botanical agent TBS-101 on invasive prostate cancer in animal models. Anticancer Res. 2009;29:3917–24. [PubMed]
  31. Falandysz J. Selenium in edible mushrooms. J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev. 2008;26(3):256–99. [PubMed]
  32. Fang Q. H, Zhong J. J. Two-stage culture process for improved production of ganoderic acid by liquid fermentation of higher fungus Ganoderma lucidum. Biotechnol Prog. 2002;18:51–4. [PubMed]
  33. Fukuzawa M, Yamaguchi R, Hide I, editors. et al. Possible involvement of long chain fatty acids in the spores of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi Houshi) to its anti-tumor activity. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008;31:1933–7. [PubMed]
  34. Furusawa E, Chou S. C, Furusawa S, Hirazumi A, Dang Y. Antitumour activity of Ganoderma lucidum, an edible mushroom, on intraperitoneally implanted Lewis lung carcinoma in synergenic mice. Phytother Res. 1992;6:300–4.
  35. Gao Y, Gao H, Chan E, editors. et al. Antitumor activity and underlying mechanisms of ganopoly, the refined polysaccharides extracted from Ganoderma lucidum, in mice. Immunol Invest. 2005;34:171–98. [PubMed]
  36. Gao Y, Lan J, Dai X, Ye J, Zhou S. A phase I/II study of Lingzhi mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (W. Curt.: Fr.) Lloyd (Aphyllophoromycetideae) extract in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2004;6:33–40.
  37. Gao J. J, Min B. S, Ahn E. M, Nakamura N, Lee H. K, Hattori M. New triterpene aldehydes, lucialdehydes A-C, from Ganoderma lucidum and their cytotoxicity against murine and human tumor cells. Chem Pharm Bull. 2002;50:837–40. [PubMed]
  38. Gao Y. H, Sai X. H, Chen G. L, Ye J. X, Zhou S. F. A randomized, placebo-controlled, multi-center study of Ganoderma lucidum (W. Curt.: Fr.) Lloyd (Aphyllophoromycetideae) polysaccharides (Ganopoly) in patients with advanced lung cancer. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2003;5:368–81.
  39. Gao Y, Tang W, Gao H, Chan E, Lan J, Zhou S. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide fractions accelerate healing of acetic acid-induced ulcers in rats. J Med Food. 2004;7(4):417–21. [PubMed]
  40. Gao Y, Zhou S. Cancer prevention and treatment by Ganoderma, a mushroom with medicinal properties. Food Rev Int. 2009;19:275–325.
  41. Gao Y. H, Zhou S. F, Chen G. L, Dai X. H, Ye J. X. A phase I/II study of a Ganoderma lucidum (Curr.: Fr.) P. Karst. Extract (Ganopoly) in patients with advanced cancer. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2002;4:207–14.
  42. Gao Y. H, Zhou S. F, Jiang W. Q, Huang M, Sai X. H. Effects of Ganopoly (a Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide extract) on immune functions in advanced-stage cancer patients. Immunol Invest. 2003;32:201–15. [PubMed]
  43. Gonzalez A. G, Leon F, Rivera A, Munoz C. M, Bermejo J. Lanostanoid triterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum. J Nat Prod. 1999;62:1700–1.
  44. Gottlieb A. M, Ferref E, Wright J. E. rDNA analyses as an aid to the taxonomy of species of Ganoderma. Mycol Res. 2000;104:1033–45.
  45. Gottlieb A. M, Saidman B. O, Wright J. E. Isoenzymes of Ganoderma species from southern South America. Mycol Res. 1998;102:415–26.
  46. Habijanic J, Berovic M. The relevance of solid-state substrate moisturing on Ganoderma lucidum biomass cultivation. Food Technol Biotechnol. 2000;38:225–8.
  47. Haralampidis K, Trojanowska M, Osbourn A. E. Biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins in plants. Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol. 2002;75:31–49. [PubMed]